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夏威夷火山喷发持续几周了!美国又公布即将喷发的十座火山……

世界播 2019-11-30 09:50:30

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Do You live near a volcano that could blow? Interactive map reveals the US areas at risk as Kilauea continues to erupt

你住在会爆发的火山附近吗?地图揭示在基拉韦亚火山持续喷发时,美国其他一些地区也处于危险之中

 

As Hawaii residents deal with the devastating effects of the eruption of the Kilauea volcano, a US Geological Service map has revealed the other US hotspots where residents are at risk of volcanic activity.

随着基拉韦厄火山喷发对夏威夷居民带来的毁灭性影响,美国地质服务局地图揭示了美国其他正面临火山活动危险的地区。

 

The United States Geological Survey counts 169 potentially active volcanoes in the country, with about 50 of them in six states are rated high priority or highest priority for monitoring. 

美国地质调查局统计了该国169个潜在的活火山,其中六个州中约有50个被列为监测的高优先级或最高优先级。

 

Alaska tops the at risk areas, with at least 50 volcanoes that have been active since 1760, attracting substantial attention from volcano watchers and researchers.

阿拉斯加位居危险地区首位,自1760年以来,至少有50座活跃的火山,吸引了火山观察者和研究人员的极大关注。

 


Lava is blurred as it erupts from a Kilauea volcano fissure, above treetops, on Hawaii's Big Island on May 17, 2018 in Kapoho, Hawaii.

2018年5月17日,夏威夷卡波霍的比格艾兰岛上,从基拉韦厄火山裂缝爆发出的熔岩模糊不清,喷到了树梢之上。

 

The at risk Alaskan areas are concentrated along the arc of the Aleutian Islands, which is part of the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific Ocean where earthquakes and eruptions are most common. 

危险中的阿拉斯加地区集中在阿留申群岛的弧线上,这是太半洋周围的“火环”的一部分,在这里地震和火山爆发极常见。

 

Most observed volcanic activity takes place along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a region around the Pacific Ocean where several tectonic plates meet, causing earthquakes and a chain of what geologists call subduction zone volcanoes.

大多数观测到的火山活动发生在太平洋的火环上,即太平洋周围的一个地区,那里有几块构造板块相连,引发地震和一连串俯冲带火山。

 

Scientists at the Alaska Volcano Observatory have a yellow alert in effect for Mount Cleveland, where they have been detecting seismic and thermal activity and occasional ash clouds.

阿拉斯加火山天文台的科学家们对克利夫兰山进行了黄色预警,他们已经在那里探测到了地震和热活动以及偶尔的火山灰云。

 

Around the globe today, about 800m people live within 100km, and 29m within 10km of active volcanoes.

现如今,全球大约有8亿人居住在活火山100公里内,2900万人在10公里范围内。

 

In Hawaii, scientist's predictions from eight days ago of powerful steam-driven explosions at Hawaii's Kilauea volcano have come true, as they say eruptions are likely to continue.

在夏威夷,科学家8天前在夏威夷基拉韦厄火山爆发的蒸汽驱动爆炸的预言成真了,他们当时说火山喷发很可能会继续。

 

Hawaii's Kilauea volcano erupted Thursday and sent ash spewing 30,000 feet into the sky before raining down on a nearby town, with residents being warned to shelter in place as the dusty plume engulfs the island.

星期四,夏威夷基拉韦厄火山爆发,灰烬喷发30000英尺高,落在附近一座城镇上空,居民们被警告要寻找安身之地,因为这座岛屿已被飞扬的尘土吞没。

 

Experts say the explosive ballistic displays could go on for weeks - and they don't know when it's going to stop.

专家们说,这次爆发可能会持续数周,不知道什么时候会停止。

 

THE US VOLCANO RISK TOP TEN

美国火山风险十强地区

 

Here are the 10 most dangerous volcanic mountains in the U.S.

以下是美国最危险的10座火山。

 

1. Kilauea, Hawaii

    夏威夷基拉韦亚火山

2. Mount St. Helens, Washington

    华盛顿圣海伦火山

3. Mount Rainier, Washington

    华盛顿雷尼尔火山

4. Mount Hood, Oregon

    俄勒冈胡德山

5. Mount Shasta, California

    加利福尼亚沙斯塔山

6. South Sister, Oregon

    俄勒冈南修女火山

7. Lassen Volcanic Center, California

    加利福利亚拉森火山

8. Mauna Loa, Hawaii

    夏威夷莫纳罗亚山

9. Redoubt, Alaska

    阿拉斯加里道特火山

10. Crater Lake, Oregon

    俄勒冈火山口湖火山


Source : U.S. Geological Survey

资料来源:美国地质调查局

 

THE INTERACTIVE VOLCANO MAP

互动式火山图



To use the map, use your mouse to see your area.

用鼠标查看你所在的区域,来使用地图。

 

The Volcanoes and Current Activity Alerts map shows the location and activity levels of all volcanoes in the United States.

火山和当前活动警报图显示了美国所有火山的位置和活动水平。

 

The map allows for filtering based on both location and current volcano status.

地图允许基于位置和当前火山状态的过滤。

 

Each volcano is depicted by a small colored triangle with different colors indicating various volcano alert levels:

每个火山由一个小的三角形表示,不同的颜色指代各种火山警报水平:

 

Green = normal

绿色=一般

Yellow = advisory

黄色=较重

Orange = watch

橙色=严重

Red = warning

红色=特别严重

 

Users can click on individual volcanoes to see that volcano's page on the USGS website.

用户可以点击某个火山,看看该火山美国地质勘探局网站上的页面。

 

The powerful, steam-driven explosion occurred at 4.17am and started spewing large amounts of volcanic ash and smoke from the crater on Hawaii's Big Island that shot higher than the peak of Mount Everest.

清晨4点17分,这一强大的,蒸汽驱动下的爆发发生了,从夏威夷比格艾兰火山口开始喷出大量火山灰和烟雾,喷射至珠峰顶以上。

 

Geologists have warned that the volcano could become even more violent, with increasing ash production and the potential that future blasts could hurl boulders from the summit.

地质学家警告说,火山爆发可能会变得更加猛烈,伴随着火山灰的增加,未来爆发时,可能会从顶峰上落下滚滚巨石。

 

The wind could carry the ash plume as far as Hilo, the Big Island's largest city and major tourism center, the County of Hawaii Civil Defense warned in an alert.

夏威夷民防局警告说,风可能把火山灰带到远至希洛市,该市是比格艾兰最大的城市和主要旅游中心。

 

'Protect yourself from ash fallout,' the warning alert said.

警报中说:“要保护自己免受火山灰损伤。”



Most observed volcanic activity takes place along the Pacific Ring of Fire. The Ring of Fire is a horse-shoe shaped seismic region stretching along the Pacific Ocean coastlines, where the Pacific Plate is grinding against other plates that form the Earth's crust.

大多数观测到的火山活动发生在太平洋的火环上。火环是沿太平洋海岸线延伸的马蹄形地震区,太平洋板块正在此处与形成地球地壳的其他板块摩擦。

 

'The resulting ash plume will cover the surrounding area.

火山灰将覆盖周围地区。

 

'You should shelter in place if you are in the path of the ash plume. Driving conditions may be dangerous so if you are driving pull off the road and wait until visibility improves.'

如果你在火山灰降落的路上,你应该找个安全的地方躲避。如果这时你在开车,驾驶情况是很危险的,你应该离开道路,等能见度提高再行驶。

 

USGS geologists and staff were evacuated from the summit shortly before the blast and a webcam showed a gray plume of ash and chunks of magma known as pyroclasts that showered the volcano's slopes.

美国地质勘探局的地质学家和工作人员在爆炸前不久从山顶撤离,摄像头拍到了灰烬和岩浆块,也称为火山碎屑,沿着火山的斜坡喷发。

 

An aviation red alert was also issued due to risks that ash could be carried into aircraft routes and damage jet engines.

灰烬可能被带到飞机航路中并损坏喷气发动机,因此还发布了一个航空红色警报。

 

The eruption could not only enshroud large areas of the Big Island in volcanic ash and smog but other Hawaiian Islands and potentially distant areas if the plume reaches up into the stratosphere and ash is carried by winds.

火山喷发不仅能把比格艾兰岛的大部分区域笼罩在火山灰和烟雾中,而且如果火山灰羽流到达平流层且灰烬被风吹起,那么其他夏威夷群岛和潜在的遥远地区都可能被笼罩其中。

 

National Guard troops donned gas masks to protect themselves from toxic sulfur dioxide gas at the intersection of highways 130 and 132, the main exit routes from the village of Pahoa, 25 miles east of the volcano, where many of the ground fissures have erupted. 

国民警卫队在帕赫阿村的主要出口处130和132号公路上设置了防毒面具,以保护他们自己免受有毒二氧化硫气体的侵害,公路位于火山东边25英里处,那里有许多地裂缝在喷发。

 

The current eruptions on land range from gentle lava effusions to moderate-sized explosions and are tiny compared to the largest in Earth's history.

目前在陆地上的喷发从温和的熔岩流出到中等规模的爆炸,和地球历史上最大的爆发相比,这还算是小的。

 

Even the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora, also in Indonesia, arguably the largest eruption in recent recorded history, is dwarfed by super-eruptions in the geological past such as that of Toba volcano on Sumatra some 74,000 years ago.

即使在1815年,同样也是印度尼西亚的坦博拉火山爆发,可以说是最近记录的历史上最大的火山喷发,但和约74000年前,苏门答腊岛托巴火山上的火山爆发相比,未免相形见绌。

 

Globally,  'Volcanic threat', a measure that combines the level of hazard and the number of people exposed to it, is by far the highest in Indonesia, followed by the Philippines, Japan, Mexico and Ethiopia.

在全球范围内,“火山威胁”(将危险程度和暴露人数相结合的衡量指标),在印度尼西亚是最高的,其次是菲律宾、日本、墨西哥和埃塞俄比亚。

 

These five countries combine to make up more than 90% of the total global volcanic threat.

这五个国家合计占全球火山威胁的90%以上。

 

Toba erupted approximately 70 times more magma than Tambora, helped plunge the earth into another ice age and may have even created a genetic bottleneck in human evolution.

托巴火山爆发的岩浆大约是坦博拉火山的70倍,促使地球进入另一个冰河时代,甚至可能在人类进化史中制造了一个瓶颈效应。

 

In fact, Toba was the largest eruption in the past 25m years, so there is little chance of a similar catastrophe any time soon.

事实上,托巴火山爆发是2500年以来最大的一次火山爆发,所以短期内不会有类似的灾难发生。

 

Nevertheless, it is the frequent, small- to moderate-sized eruptions that pose a constant volcanic threat. 

然而,频繁的、小到中等大小的火山喷发会持续地威胁着人类。



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